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Stage 1 : Brief Overview :

During this initial stage, the client will have started to ascertain their Business Case and Strategic Brief along with other core project requirements and objectives. The client will also likely have started to appoint a team to support the project development.

This is a critical stage in the BIM process where the value proposition and desired outcomes of a collaborative and data-centric approach are established. To help ascertain the BIM return on investment the client should use the following SFT tools to determine a well informed decision on their level of BIM adoption and strategy for the project or programme of works.

SFT BIM Grading Tool

SFT BIM Return on Investment Calculator (Available Feb 2017)

PAS1192-2 notes that at the briefing stage, the graphical model will either not exist or will inherit information from the AIM (for work on existing buildings and structures).

This leading stage is also when the “Soft Landings” process is normally instigated where performance targets are established and lessons learned from previous projects reviewed and considered as part of the strategic brief.

Requirements for collaborative and lean working practices should also be established with a clear strategy on information management and “common data environment (CDE)” functional requirements and implementation. Standards and processes that are to be utilised for information management and data delivery should also be decided and prescribed.

Considerations in relation to security of information should also be embedded within the project’s construction lifecycle processes. This should define appropriate and proportionate measures to reduce the risk of loss or disclosure of information which could impact on the safety and security of personnel and other occupants or users of the built asset and its services; the built asset itself etc.

The client should also have started to define information and data requirements to support the project’s and portfolio’s delivery / operational strategy and support the decision making process. These needs will need to be included in any early appointments and scope of service. Data requirements for input into other systems for example the clients Computer Assisted Facilities Management system should be defined and levels of data growth through the project (level of definition), responsibilities and timings of requirements stipulated. It is essential that supply chain capability and capacity for BIM and Information management be tested.

For next steps within this stage, please refer to the Brief Stage Checklist and associated tasks listed within the menus on this page.


Stage 2 Concept :

The concept stage in most cases follows the feasibility and or option studies with a standard stage output of a refined project brief and concept approval.

PAS 1192-2 Notes that at the concept design stage the graphical design might only show a massing diagram or specify a symbol in 2D to represent a generic reference. The models usually communicate the initial response to the brief.

At this stage the models may be used for early design development, analysis, sequencing and estimating purposes to inform relevant stages PLQs.

During this stage the Client Information Model (CIM) and Employers Information Requirements (EIR) will have been completed to facilitate the supplier procurement process.


Stage 3 Définition :

During this stage there is a clear focus on a preferred design option used to support the Outline or Full Business Case. The models for the preferred design will be dimensionally correct and deliver the required outcomes set out within the brief. This model can be used for initial analysis and any early contractor engagement on programme and construction methodology.

During this stage, the Concept Design and associated Project Information Model (PIM) are progressed until the design is coordinated across the various design disciplines. This process may require a number of model reviews and clash detections involving federated modelling and collaborative workshops. Each task team must take ownership of their own Work in Progress (WIP) information and model(s) before issuing to the Shared part of the CDE. It is essential that all drawings and data be created from the native files and not be created as a parallel 2D process. This will support the management of data as revisions are made and support the opportunities to collaborate with the design information.

PAS1192-2 notes that at the design stage the objects shall be represented in 3D with the specification attached. The Level of Detail (LOD) should as a minimum represent the space allocation for the product’s access space for maintenance, installation and replacement space in addition to its operational space.

It is important that the Task Information Delivery Plan (TIDP) and Master Information Delivery Plan (MIDP) are followed to manage the delivery of information during this key stage of the PIM development. Consideration should be given to regular Model audits and or QA checking during this stage.

The models are usually developed to a stage where they can help facilitate estimating and agreement of a first stage target price. The models will at this stage be usually limited to generic systems, objects and assemblies which detail performance and outline specification.

The primary geometry and co-ordination is usually agreed and frozen by this stage and the models aligned with the agreed procurement strategy and work package structure.

Stage 4 Design :

During this stage, the Project Information Model (PIM) is progressed and will be co-ordinated and dimensionally correct. PAS1192-2 notes that by the stage models should be sufficiently developed to verify compliance with regulatory compliance. The model should be developed to a stage whereby production information can be utilised for the purposes of tendering.

The designs and models will now be further refined to provide technical definition of the project and the level of definition produced by each designer undertaken in accordance with the MIDP.

The PIM will also be mature enough by this stage to start incorporating specialist sub-contractor models and support the agreement of a target price or GMP.

A detailed construction methodology, risk management plan and maintenance plan should also be able to be developed based upon information from the models.

Stage 5 Build and Commission :

During the build and commission stage, the Project Information Model (PIM) continues to develop however most of the exchanges are now between members of the supply chain as oppose to the client. This is particular relevant for design work that is being undertaken by subcontractors and or their suppliers.

PAS1192-2 notes that at this stage any generic object shall be replaced with the object procured from the manufacturer. Any essential information to be retained shall be reattached or relinked to the replacement object.

The key objective is to ensure “As constructed” models, data and documentation is delivered especially the capturing of operation and maintenance data from manufacturers. Thought should be given to the use of Product Data Templates which are aligned with the COBie schema to ensure a consistent method in how data in collated and managed.

The benefits of adopting BIM during this stage will be linked to clash detection, construction scheduling, work-package management, cost management, quality control and health & safety planning. The suppliers should be encouraged to adopt Lean and Collaborative working practices to enhance the BIM work-flows.

The Avanti diagram below shows how the EIR may also repeat between the first tier and the subsequent tiers. From Design Lead to its supply chain and from the Construction Lead to its supply chain for each Stage.  It is especially important at this stage that the demand of information can cascade downwards and supply of information pull upwards.


The Build and comission stage contains two key tasks which include the management of Model Review Meetings and PIM Data Exchanges and Validation.

Stage 6 Handover and Close out :

This stage describes the activities associated with, handover of the built asset including updating ‘as constructed’ information, commissioning, and training. All information necessary for Soft Landings activities should be completed and the employer briefed and or trained in their operational requirements as per the contract.

During this stage the structured information prescribed in the Employers Information Requirements (EIR) and created during the evolution of the Project Information Model (PIM) shall be transmitted to the Asset Information Model (AIM) in the required formats such as COBie and proprietary geometric models.

It is important that the “as-constructed” models be verified for completeness including laser scan surveys and point-cloud analysis.

The data requirements of the handover process and associated activities are documented in PAS1192-3.

Stage 7 Operation in use :

At this juncture the project will have moved into the operational stage and the hard and soft facilities management services will commence.

In the operational and in-use stage the Asset information model (AIM) is used to help manage, maintain and operate the asset using data and information that relates to the asset. This will be aligned to the organization’s asset management system.

PAS1192-3 states that the purpose of the AIM is to be the single source of approved and validated information related to the asset(s). This includes data and geometry describing the asset(s) and the spaces and items associated with it, data about performance of the asset(s), supporting information about the asset(s) such as specification, operation and maintenance manuals, and health and safety information.

Section 4.6.4 of PAS1192-3 highlights the processes and procedures for an organisation to maintain an AIM through a common data environment. It is important that the Employer has a strategy to maintain their AIM during the operational stage. This should consider the correct resources, skills and software systems being put in place to maintain the AIM effectively.

Aftercare is key to this stage and post-occupancy evaluations should be taken at agreed mile-stones to collect and compare actual operation performance against planned targets, assess project outcomes and feedback lessons learned.


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